# A First Course in Probability (8th Edition)

## Sheldon M. Ross

Language: English

Pages: 545

ISBN: 9332519072

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

**A First Course in Probability, Eighth Edition**, features clear and intuitive explanations of the mathematics of probability theory, outstanding problem sets, and a variety of diverse examples and applications. This book is ideal for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate level introduction to probability for math, science, engineering and business students. It assumes a background in elementary calculus.

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the assumption that all of the 36 possible outcomes are equally likely. Since there are 6 possible outcomes—namely, (1, 6), (2, 5), (3, 4), (4, 3), (5, 2), and (6, 1)—that result in the sum of the dice being equal to 7, 6 = 16 . . the desired probability is 36 EXAMPLE 5b If 3 balls are “randomly drawn” from a bowl containing 6 white and 5 black balls, what is the probability that one of the balls is white and the other two black? Solution. If we regard the order in which the balls are selected as

the students in this college are majoring in computer science. Two percent of the students are women majoring in computer science. If a student is selected at random, ﬁnd the conditional probability that (a) the student is female given that the student is majoring in computer science; (b) this student is majoring in computer science given that the student is female. 3.21. A total of 500 married working couples were polled about their annual salaries, with the following information resulting:

games are independent and each game is equally likely to be won by either participant. For each team, what is the probability that it will win the division title? If two teams tie for ﬁrst place, they have a playoff game, which each team has an equal chance of winning. 3.72. A town council of 7 members contains a steering committee of size 3. New ideas for legislation go ﬁrst to the steering committee and then on to the council as a whole if at least 2 of the 3 committee members approve the

A(B)[C] turns up heads with probability P1 (P2 )[P3 ]. If one person gets an outcome different from those of the other two, then he is the odd 115 man out. If there is no odd man out, the players ﬂip again and continue to do so until they get an odd man out. What is the probability that A will be the odd man? 3.20. Suppose that there are n possible outcomes of a trial, with outcome i resulting with probability pi , i = 1, . . . , n, n pi = 1. If two independent tri- i=1 3.21. 3.22. 3.23.

Explain your reasoning! 4.52. The monthly worldwide average number of airplane crashes of commercial airlines is 3.5. What is the probability that there will be (a) at least 2 such accidents in the next month; (b) at most 1 accident in the next month? Explain your reasoning! 4.53. Approximately 80,000 marriages took place in the state of New York last year. Estimate the probability that, for at least one of these couples, (a) both partners were born on April 30; (b) both partners celebrated their