A Very Capitalist Condition: A History and Politics of Disability

A Very Capitalist Condition: A History and Politics of Disability

Language: English

Pages: 320

ISBN: 1910885010

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


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replicate the ‘normal’ body—at the expense of functionality. Many children rejected these devices, preferring instead to adapt to their own particular bodies.966 This category of prostheses also includes false breasts, often offered to women after mastectomies following treatment for breast cancer. Since the invention of the first silicone implants in March 1962, however, breast enhancements became increasingly popular, along with other forms of cosmetic surgery. The pressures to achieve

fool was primarily associated with the clown/fool figures of Elizabethan drama. At the beginning of the 18th century, permanent mental difference (as natural folly) and temporary mental difference (as a psychiatric condition) became amalgamated. The fool became an object of medical research, and later of special education and rehabilitation. This was linked to the emergence of the “norm” in statistics (see chapter 7) with degrees of “deviance” in cognitive ability measured on a continuum of

million others with medical problems.457 The WHO estimates indoor air pollution was linked to 4.3 million deaths in 2012, mainly among the almost 3 billion people living in homes using wood, coal or dung as their primary cooking fuel. Air pollution is also known to be a primary cause of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancers.458 More generally, practices outlawed in the more advanced economies are often still permitted elsewhere. The role of asbestos in causing cancers (especially

impact. It features Hayat, a young man with an amputated arm (presumably due to a landmine), who is shown trying to sell prosthetic legs to a passer-by. The latter responds: “I have my own, thank you”. Hayat retorts, again very matter-of-factly: “These fields are full of mines; it’s good to have replacements”.467 In Cambodia and Rwanda, an estimated 100,000 people lost limbs as a direct result of the combatants’ use of landmines.468 These wars led to efforts to establish rehabilitation services

veterans in the inter-war period, many more disabled people joined the workforce in the Second World War. The US Borden-Lafollette Act of 1943 specifically provided for the employment of people classed as blind, mentally ill or “retarded”,889 while the UK 1944 Disabled Persons (Employment) Act provided for a disability employment register and a (non-enforceable) 3 percent disabled employee quota for companies with more than 20 workers.890 This change became more permanent during the long

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