Architecture and Mathematics from Antiquity to the Future, Volume 2: The 1500s to the Future
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Every age and every culture has relied on the incorporation of mathematics in their works of architecture to imbue the built environment with meaning and order. Mathematics is also central to the production of architecture, to its methods of measurement, fabrication and analysis. This two-volume edited collection presents a detailed portrait of the ways in which two seemingly different disciplines are interconnected. Over almost 100 chapters it illustrates and examines the relationship between architecture and mathematics. Contributors of these chapters come from a wide range of disciplines and backgrounds: architects, mathematicians, historians, theoreticians, scientists and educators. Through this work, architecture may be seen and understood in a new light, by professionals as well as non-professionals.
Volume II covers architecture from the Late Renaissance era, through Baroque, Ottoman, Enlightenment, Modern and contemporary styles and approaches. Key figures covered in this volume include Palladio, Michelangelo, Borromini, Sinan, Wren, Wright, Le Corbusier, Breuer, Niemeyer and Kahn. Mathematical themes which are considered include linear algebra, tiling and fractals and the geographic span of the volume’s content includes works in the United States of America and Australia, in addition to those in Europe and Asia.
(Stevenson 2005). This structure, consisting of a column on an orthogonal prism base, contained a zenith telescope, an instrument which could be used to measure gravitational affects or the position of stars. The final chapter in Part VIII is about Claude Perrault’s Observatoire de Paris. Designed around the same time as the Great Fire of London, this building was originally intended to house the Paris Academy of Sciences. In ‘Practical and Theoretical Applications of Geometry in Perrault’s
Surface in Architecture’ (Chap. 90) Michael Ostwald reminds the reader that throughout history systems of geometry have typically been used with a knowledge and transparent demonstration of the basic mathematical principles underpinning that geometry. These properties are often associated with beliefs in correct, right or ideal applications of knowledge in architecture (Watkin 1977; Evans 1997). Grouped under the general heading of ethical considerations, these values have shaped some of the
to the requirement of drawing the side elevation separately, a decisive step for achieving the accurate definition of depth grading, Alberti gave us the enigmatic indication that a small space (picciolo spazio) would 84 J.P. Xavier Fig. 52.9 Panoramic natural vision. Image: De Vries (1604) Fig. 52.10 Alberti’s modo ottimo by Francesco di Giorgio Martini (ca. 1490: fol. 33) be enough for its execution. This compression of the drawing frame allows us to think of the possibility of working
drawings showing an explicit interest in rotational symmetries. Because Vitruvius prescribed symmetry only for public buildings, the use of symmetry for house plans in the Quattrocento “required vigorous reinterpretation” (Hersey and Freedman 1992: 31). To this end, Cesare Cesariano was more than willing to “clarify and extend” Vitruvius’ notion of symmetry so that it applied to domestic as well as public architecture (Hersey and Freedman 1992: 33). Daniele Barbaro insisted that private houses
vestibule (Fig. 57.1). What follows is a description of our findings. Significant as they may be in terms of what they reveal about Michelangelo’s use of a proportional system, we have organized the present chapter in order to concentrate on a methodology of obtaining data, organizing it, and estimating its uncertainty. The intent is to begin to provide information that may help establish standards relating to these tasks. Description of the Surveying Method Here we briefly summarize the