Civil War in Europe, 1905-1949

Civil War in Europe, 1905-1949

Stanley G. Payne

Language: English

Pages: 256

ISBN: 1107648157

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


This is the first account in any language of the civil wars in Europe during the era of the world wars, from 1905 to 1949. It treats the initial confrontations in the decade before World War I, the confusing concept of "European civil war," the impact of the world wars, the relation between revolution and civil war, and all the individual cases of civil war, with special attention to Russia and Spain. The civil wars of this era are compared and contrasted with earlier internal conflicts, with particular attention to the factors that made this era a time of unusually violent domestic contests, as well as those that brought it to an end. The major political, ideological, and social influences are all treated, with a special focus on violence against civilians.

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Garrido González, F. Quilis Tauriz, N. Rodrigo González, and J. M. Santacréu Soler, “Las colectivizaciones en la Guerra Civil,” in J. Aróstegui, ed., Historia y memoria de la Guerra Civil (Valladolid, 1988), 2:63–124. The most inclusive study is W. L. Bernecker, Colectivizaciones y revolución social: El anarquismo en la guerra civil española, 1936–1939 (Barcelona, 1982), which, as the title indicates, is devoted to the CNT. For a briefer and more general survey, see Bernecker’s chapter, “La

toward amnesty for the remaining collaborators. (The principal exception was Germany, which was slow to regain sovereignty, and then moved to a reverse rhythm.) Historically, amnesty has been a classic feature in the ultimate resolution of civil war and major internal conflict, beginning with Athens at the close of the fifth century B.C. As Ernest Renan observed in the nineteenth century: Forgetting, and even historical error, constitute an essential factor in building a nation, and for that

leader of the anti-Axis struggle by the Yugoslav government in exile, and hence had received most of the arms and other support provided by Great Britain, by the beginning of 1943 British support had shifted decisively to the Partisans, who were judged by far the most effective anti-Axis force, and for the remainder of the war they would be the chief beneficiaries of British assistance, enabling them to become stronger than ever.10 Yugoslavia was the only area, aside from the occupied portions

Weitz, Eric 99 Weltanschauungskrieg (term) 20, 200 Whites:in Bulgaria 94 in Finland 26–32, 153 in Hungary 85 in Outer Mongolia 61–62 in Russia 47, 50–55, 63–65, 153 in Ukraine 54–58 Wilkinson, David 151 Wilson, Woodrow 24–25 World War I:conduct of 21–22 as counterrevolution 24 destabilizing effects of, Europe–wide 69 Germany’s surrender in 47 impact of, on Russian civil war 34–35, 49–51, 64 Spanish civil war as culmination of 181–84 See also Versailles Treaty World War

that it was crucially influenced by major shifts in environment and climate: Goldstone, “Crisis and Catastrophe: The Global Crisis of the Seventeenth Century Reconsidered,” American Historical Review, 104:4 (October 2008), 1053–79; and Parker, The Global Crisis: War, Climate, and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth-Century World (New Haven, Conn., 2010). In general, the consequences were not revolutionary change, despite the major reformist breakthrough in England and the pronounced shift toward

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