Dictionary of the Avant-Gardes
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This interdisciplinary guide covers the most influential avant garde art movements of the past 150 years, ranging from futurism to free-jazz. It has been updated and revised to include greater coverage of women artists, and the internet and other emerging technologies.
environments of, say, USCO (*) or La Monte Young (*). To distin guish among various genres, my book proposed this typology. “Closed” space was my euphemism for a theater, which could also be any kind of enclosed performance space; “variable” time could range from a few seconds to infinity, depending upon the performance. The assumption of a “Hap pening” was that generalized instructions could generate unforeseen results. The chapters of my book are extended interviews with practitioners who
entirely serious). The result is an original open-ended potpourri of bookish materials that, unlike a conventional artist’s manifesto, “explains” Oldenburg’s Envi ronmental art less by declarative statements than by implied resemblances. He has also published books of his theatrical scripts, some of which were staged as mixed-means (*) performance, and of comparably ironic Proposals for Monu ments and Buildings (1969). Oldenburg, Claes. Store Days. NY: Something Else, 1967. Rose, Barbara. Claes
variety of avant-garde ideas in ways that may or may not be original. His String Quartet (1960) had old instruments resonating in new ways, while his genuinely moving Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima (1960) had fifty-two strings realizing smoothly modulated frequency bands, mostly at their highest possible pitches, superfi cially resembling Gy orgy Ligeti’s (*) stunning Atmospheres (1961) and Lux Aeterna (1966). As Penderecki gained recognition, his music became slickly pretentious, if not
Cointet, Guy de. TSNX C24VA7ME: A PLAY BY DR HUN. Venice, CA: Sure Co (76 Market Street), 1974. ----- . Espahor ledet ko uluner!. N.p. (Los Angeles?): n. p. (sell?), n.d. (c. 1976). COLEMAN, Ornette (1930). Born in Texas, self taught as a musician, Coleman around 1960 caused a stir in the world of jazz (*) music comparable to that of Igor Stravinsky (*) in classical music decades before him. His innova tion was instrumental independence, which is to say that the soloist performs independently
played back, these sounds could be distributed to speakers that could surround the spectator with sound; they could conduct pseudo-conver sations with one another. Because wholly Electronic Music did not depend upon instruments, it eschewed conven tional scoring. Indeed, if a piece were created entirely “by ear,” so to speak, there would be no score at all, initially creating a problem with the American copyright office, which would accept scores but not tapes as evidence of authorship. Partly