Female Occupations: Women's Employment from 1840-1950 (Local Dialect) (FAMILY HISTORY)
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This is a carefully researched A-Z of women's employment, covering over 200 years of change. The entries themselves themselves are based on an encyclopaedic approach, each full of interest and information, as they chart the steadily evolving status of women and the job opportunities open to them. Early occupations considered socially suitable included dairymaid, fisherwoman, governess, and stone picker. The decline of domestic service and the effect of the two World Wars way to the modern era of access for women to all categories and ranks of employment. These include accountants, army officers, and diplomats, as well as captains of industry and even Prime Minister. The Dictionary of Female Occupations is aimed especially at family historians, and contains over 300 entries. Each has some explanation of what the job entailed, the historical setting, and examples or stories of women who were involved with it.
www.johnboydtextiles.co.uk/history.html for more about horsehair weaving. There are useful articles online at www.origins.net/help/resarticle-so-weaving.htm (‘Weaving and the Textile Industry’ in Scotland), and http://scottishtextileheritage.org.uk/onlineResources/articles. Welfare worker The Welfare Workers’ Association was founded in 1913, with 29 of its 34 founding members being women engaged in welfare work in factories belonging to companies such as Rowntree & Co,
that thousands of children were so ill-fed as to be on the edge of starvation, that some school boards also became involved. The poor diet of the working class was a particular cause for concern when Army recruitment for the South African War in 1899 revealed an underclass of ill-nourished workers, stunted in growth. In 1906 the Education (Provision of Meals) Act gave local authorities the powers to provide hot meals in elementary schools, paid for by parents or the imposition of a local
others can be found listed in acknowledgement pages, e.g. Dorothy Hardy in the Strand Magazine in 1896. Unfortunately it will prove to be difficult to trace many of the women who worked on a freelance basis. Some help may be provided by the Dictionary of 19th Century British Book Illustrators and Caricaturists, Simon Houfe (Antiques Collectors Club, 2nd edn, 1999) and Dictionary of 20th Century British Book Illustrators, Alan Horne (Antiques Collectors Club, 1994). There is also an online list of
architecture, planning and surveying in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Artificial flower maker A glance at any fashion plate of the 19th and early 20th centuries, when hats and dresses were enhanced with elaborate adornments, makes it clear why the art of artificial flower making employed hundreds of girls and women. The best quality artificial flowers – intended for the most fashionable creations – were prepared in small factories, but it was also work done at home. In 1896
Second World War the Liverpool Waterguard Superintendent made an official request to be able to employ a searcher, fearing that enemy agents were smuggling secrets out of Britain (‘I have in mind an elderly, motherly sort of woman acquainted with, and able to handle, babies as well as women’) and from 1942 to 1945 a Mrs Moneypenny was appointed full time searcher. Any surviving records will be with Customs and Excise documents at The National Archives (the case above is quoted from CUST 106/432)