From Aristotle to Augustine: Routledge History of Philosophy Volume 2
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This second volume opens with Aristotle's immense influence on philosophy from the beginnings of Christian philosophy in the fifth century AD.
name ‘white’, for instance) applies to the substances to which the universal is present, in general not the name itself, but rather some linguistic predicate associated with the name, is applicable to all and only those things having the universal as an accidental property. Socrates is called ‘brave’, not ‘bravery’. Despite this, the definition of any universal X that is accidentally predicable of a subject Y can never be truly applied to Y. Although the name ‘white’ applies to white particulars
source of the motion of the outermost celestial sphere, and being the final cause of that motion, it moves as an object of love. God is incapable of being other than it is, and as such has no matter, but rather is a being the substance of which is actuality (energeia).41 This actuality is activity of the best sort: intelligent activity (nous). Being eternally engaged in the best kind of thinking, god is a living being. God’s intelligence is not a thinking of us or of the universe, but rather is a
teaching and research in which the subjects were systematically distributed into specialist branches. Each of his own surviving writings is devoted to a single subject-matter, unlike the dialogues of his teacher Plato. Some branches of knowledge were covered not by himself but by his students: for example Theophrastus wrote the major work on botany, Eudemus wrote on the history of mathematics, Menon on the history of medicine.9 Moreover, the school founded by Aristotle in the Lyceum was the first
those of the state: to him, a totalitarian polis would not be a polis at all.4 AIMS AND METHODS How then does Aristotle tackle the political theory and practice of his day? Four strands in his text are readily discernible: 1 Theoretical fixed points: a technique of analysis based on a cluster of such concepts as nature, function, virtue, and happiness, deployed teleologically. 2 Practical fixed points: the institutions of the ‘best’ state, in which the concepts of 1 are instantiated in as
topics in NE 4.36 Burnyeat, M., ‘Aristotle on Learning to be Good’, in Rorty [4.13], 69–92. 4.38 Cooper, J., ‘Friendship and the Good’, Philosophical Review 86, 1977; repr. as ‘Aristotle on Friendship’ in Rorty [4.13], 301–340. 4.39 Furley, D., ‘Aristotle on the Voluntary’, in Barnes, Schofield and Sorabji (eds) [1.53], 47–60. 4.40 Gosling, J. and Taylor, C.C.W., The Greeks on Pleasure, Oxford, Clarendon, 1982. 4.41 Owen, G.E.L., ‘Aristotelian Pleasures’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society