Gender and Difference in the Middle Ages (Medieval Cultures, Volume 32)
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Gender has been a powerful and prominent factor affecting relationships of power and social hierarchies throughout history but, as this group of essays shows, there were many other notions of `difference' that intersected with gender within the medieval world. These 11 essays, which are based on research from the fields of history, literary and religious studies, use postcolonial and feminist theory to explore various categories of `difference' in western Christian, Jewish, Byzantine and Islamic worlds. They examine the ways in which concepts of gender and difference were used to constrain and control social behaviour and to undermine identities, and the presence of various forms of resistance to these discourses of difference.
see esp. Elizabeth A. Clark, Jerome, Chrysostom, and Friends: Essays and Translations, Studies in Women and Religion 2 (New York, 1979). 18. Ambrose, “Exposition of the Gospel of Luke,” in PL 15:1844. See also Bullough, “Medieval Medical and Scientific Views of Women,” 499, who provides the translation. 19. Wayne A. Meeks, “The Image of the Androgyne: Some Uses of a Symbol in Earliest Christianity,” Journal of the History of Religions 13, no. 1 (1973): 165–208; Dennis Ronald Macdonald,
Fishbein, The History of al-Tabar¯ı, vol. 31: The War between Brothers (Albany, NY, 1992), 58. 22. Al-J¯ahiz, al-Hayawan ¯ 1:167. 23. Ibid. 1:136. 24. What follows here is a summary of my article “The Effeminates of Early Medina,” see note 4 above. 25. It is true, however, as noted above (see note 6), that a group of traditions state that the prophet Muhammad cursed both “men who imitate women” and “women who imitate men,” and later discussions of these traditions generally assume that they are
well-minded ’ ⑀ bodyguards ␦´, good and faithful ´␣. The language of Metaphrastes’ description of the lions’ behavior is typical of the language routinely used to describe the eunuchs of the Byzantine court.65 Again Metaphrastes is subtly connecting Daniel to court traditions, language, and imagery of his own day. Metaphrastes continues with a discussion of Daniel’s fasts in preparation for his visions about the future. Again, he uses language that is characteristic of his
genimeþ, specified in item 82 and perhaps implied in items 83 and 84 as well, as to whether it means abduction or rape as well. See Carole Hough, “A Reappraisal of Æthelberht 84,” Nottingham Medieval Studies 37 (1993): 1–6; and Christine Fell, “An Appendix to Carole Hough’s Article A ‘Re-appraisal of Æthelberht 84,’” Nottingham Medieval Studies 37 (1993): 7–8. 65. As Klinck points out, “In Ethelbert’s laws, a woman has a claim on her husband’s property only by virtue of being the mother of his
Nelson’s groundbreaking essay, “Queens as Jezebels: Brunhild and Balthild in Merovingian History.” 68. For a different discussion of the relationship between sexual practices and Theodore’s Penitential, among other documents of the conversion, see Anthony Davies, “The Sexual Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons,” in A Wyf Ther Was: Essays in Honour of Paule Mertens-Fonck, ed. Juliette Dor (Liège, 1992), pp. 80–102. 69. Allen J. Frantzen, The Literature of Penance in Anglo-Saxon England (New Brunswick,