Land and Labour: Marxism, Ecology and Human History

Land and Labour: Marxism, Ecology and Human History

Martin Empson

Language: English

Pages: 320

ISBN: 1909026522

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

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Ameriζa was strippεd of irs gold and 5ilvζr, and its lands were transformed to producε coffeε, sugar and orhεr εxporr crops for Europe. 1he Montagnais 1n many cases thε arrival of Europeans led to thζ complεtε dεsrruction of an indigenous civilisation; in othεr cases, societiε5 were transformεd. The encounters betweζn indiglεnous pεoplε and Europeans had pro­ found impacts on soζial relations, organisation and culture. 1n order to undεrstand this proζess in greatζr dζtail, this sζction looks at

English and “kil1 mζn, womεn, and children, but no cows". Cows should bζ spared bζcausε they would providε food until the dεεr and gamε returned. 1his rebζ1lion was not to be. M ianronomo was murderζd by the ζolonists and by 1 8 0 0 all thε indigεnous population ofNεw England were living in reser­ vations, r,εstrictξd to thε use of the poorest soils with no game for hunting or fish to catch. lheir way of life had beζn dεstroyed. 50 thε arrival of Europeans, with thεir thirst for natural rζsourcεS

arε at high risk of devεlopmεntal damagε bζcause of malnutrition. Thε world is able to producε εnough food so that nobody need starve. y'εt millions go hungry. At thε height of the food pricε ζrisis of 2006 to 2008 morε food was producζd than was nζζdεd to fiζed thε world’s population at currεnt lεvels of dεmand. Over the last 20 yζars food production has grown by 2 percent ζVζry yζar, outstripping popula­ tion growth.'" The total agricultural population of the world is around three billion ; of

succεssful, though as public opinion shifrεd against thζ landownεrs in the latεr part of the 19th cζmury thεre wζrζ a number of successful rebεllions that forcεd landlords to give up on thε clζarancζ of I’Q LANJ) A x n LAB()('R problεm only through the eyes of thε landowning dassεs. 끄ley needεd 이lang'ε becausε thζy wanted to kεεp thζir own ancεstral lands and thε incomεs thζy fcεlt thcy had a right to. While they daimed thεse rights, they saw no rights extending to thε ‘:ommon people who

statε protection for thε agrarian ζconomy and output is now back at 1950 1εvels. Similar trεnds can bε Sζen in sub-Saha­ ran Africa ovζr the 19805, with both total outputs and outpUt pεr caplta dζclining."1 ln the largε5t and most populous countries of sub-Saharan Africa εxport crops grεw bεtwζen 6 and I3 percεnt annually, but basic food staplζs showεd an absolutζ declinε or grew at less than 2 percεnt. Pεr capita ζonsumption of staple foods dcclinζd. Ovεr thε samζ pεriod 6ve of the six most

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