New Developments in Goal Setting and Task Performance
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This book concentrates on the last twenty years of research in the area of goal setting and performance at work. The editors and contributors believe goals affect action, and this volume has a lineup of international contributors who look at the recent theories and implications in this area for IO psychologists and human resource management academics and graduate students.
assertion, MBA students interpreted the same assignment in different ways depending on which identity was salient (Brett & VandeWalle, 1999). Furthermore, members of different departments within manufacturing companies were also found to interpret goals differently (Nauta & Sanders, 2001). Across 11 manufacturing organizations, each department placed a different level of importance on six overall goals of manufacturing (efficiency, quality, delivery speed, delivery reliability, flexibility, and
realistically possible. On the vertical axis of the figure are the effectiveness values of the various levels of the indicator. Effectiveness is defined as the amount of contribution made to the organization. It is the value to the organization of that level of the indicator. The scale ranges from +100, which is maximum effectiveness, to −100, minimum effectiveness. It also has a zero point that is defined as the minimum expected level of effectiveness. This minimum level is seen as neither good
scholars have argued that age differences in memory may be partly (not completely) explained by the fact that most studies comparing younger and older adults’ memory do not control for individual differences in goals and motivation to learn the material. However, it is likely that such goals do influence the effort allocated by the learner (Adams, Smith, Pasupathi, & Vitolo, 2002; Hess, 2005). In line with this notion, memory for emotional as opposed to non-emotional information was relatively
Increase in dual-task costs from young adulthood to old age. Psychology & Aging, 3, 417–436. Locke, E.A., Frederick, E., Lee, C., & Bobko, P.(1984). Effect of self-efficacy, goals, and task strategies on task performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(2), 241–251. Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (Eds.)(1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task
Study 2), reducing cigarette consumption (Oettingen, Mayer, & Thorpe, 2010), and idiosyncratic interpersonal wishes of great importance (e.g., establishing a good relationship with one’s mother; Oettingen et al., 2001 Studies 1 and 3). Further, strength of goal pursuit was assessed by cognitive (e.g., making plans), affective (e.g., feeling responsible for the wished-for ending), motivational (e.g., feelings of energization), and behavioral indicators (e.g., invested effort and achievements).