Psychotherapy: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)
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Psychotherapy and counselling are now widely available to help people overcome emotional and psychological difficulties in their lives. They involve spending time with a professional in an emotionally safe and structured relationship to explore and express the issues that cause distress and difficulty, such as long term self-doubts, relationship problems, or the impact of a trauma or crisis. As a society, we now take this focus on talking through and understanding our identity and relationships for granted, but it is hardly more than a century old.
In this Very Short Introduction, Tom Burns and Eva Burns-Lundgren trace the development of psychotherapy from its origins in Freud's psychoanalysis to the range of different approaches - counselling, cognitive behaviour therapy, and other time-limited therapies, mindfulness, group and family therapies, and many more. Describing the processes central to them all and highlighting their differences, they demonstrate what problems each therapy are best suited for. They explain the principles behind the most commonly available types of psychotherapies and provide examples of what patients can expect when they seek such help. They conclude by examining the practice of psychotherapy - the types of training psychotherapists have, the safeguards that exist to keep practice reliable, and how one goes about choosing a psychotherapist.
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different concerns, or symbolization when a vivid image stands for an unacceptable preoccupation. One rather hackneyed example is dreams of trains being understood to symbolize sexual intercourse. Analysis was needed to uncover the latent content. Searching out the clues to neurosis revealed in dreams and free associations remained the basis of all Freud’s subsequent work. He believed that nothing was ever truly forgotten, and that nothing was ever just coincidence, hence the ‘Freudian slip’.
Ball THE MONGOLS Morris Rossabi MORMONISM Richard Lyman Bushman MUHAMMAD Jonathan A. C. Brown MULTICULTURALISM Ali Rattansi MUSIC Nicholas Cook MYTH Robert A. Segal THE NAPOLEONIC WARS Mike Rapport NATIONALISM Steven Grosby NELSON MANDELA Elleke Boehmer NEOLIBERALISM Manfred Steger and Ravi Roy NETWORKS Guido Caldarelli and Michele Catanzaro THE NEW TESTAMENT Luke Timothy Johnson THE NEW TESTAMENT AS LITERATURE Kyle Keefer NEWTON Robert Iliffe NIETZSCHE Michael Tanner
are in charge and can make choices, and it is overwhelmingly interested in what you think. CBT therapists are not naïve about this focus on thinking. They know that thinking, feeling, and behaviour (indeed even physical health) are all interconnected and continually influence each other. There are constant feedback loops between them. However, CBT emphasizes how thinking drives emotions, and it selects thinking as the point in the system where change can most effectively be achieved. Sessions
arise constantly in all families—but with changing the family’s style of interacting and operating. Family dynamics are immensely powerful, so the therapy aims to channel this energy in a more healthy direction. Clarifying communication clears away obstructions to the developmental stages that all families have to go through, and so allows its members to grow and move on. Family therapists are very active and use a number of tried and tested ‘tools’. One is the genogram (see Figure 12). This is
withdrawal 47–8 Socrates 78–9 solution-focused therapy (SFT) 54–7 splitting 21 stages of development 37–8 Stern, Daniel 39 Stoicism 74 suggestion 6–7 Sullivan, Harry Stack 37 super-ego 21 T tasking 56, 81–2 telephone counselling 70–1 terminology 108 therapists, core conditions 61–3 time-limited therapies 44–6, 50, 57 training for psychoanalysts 23 transactional analysis (TA) 66–7 transference 22, 27–8, 43 true self 42 Tukes family 5 U ubuntu 112 unconditional positive