Qualitative Research: An Introduction to Methods and Designs
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The authors—noted scholars and researchers—provide an up-to-date guide to qualitative study design, data collection, analysis, and reporting. Step by step, the authors explain a range of methodologies and methods for conducting qualitative research focusing on how they are applied when conducting an actual study. The book includes methods of data collection, specific approaches to qualitative research, and current issues in the field. Specifically, chapters cover the methods, designs, and analyses related to the methodologies of history, case study, program evaluation, ethnography, autoethnography, narrative, life histories, emancipatory discourses, feminist perspectives, African American inquiry, indigenous studies, and practitioner qualitative research.
portrayed through more quantitative means, such as a tally of events. Quantitative data might also include results from such instruments as tests and attitude measures. It is the researcher’s task to strike a balance between quantitative and qualitative data in obtaining the best answers to research questions and communicating the case to stakeholders and other audiences (see Exhibit 10.4, which elaborates on question 2 from Exhibit 10.3). EXHIBIT 10.4 TUTOR STUDY EXAMPLE OF QUESTIONS LINKED TO
nineteenth century, entered into the public vernacular and, subsequently, the collective memory of our nation” (p. 155). The French sociologist Maurice Halbwachs (1941/1992) has generally been credited with the first articulation of collective memory, arguing that what we know about past events is influenced by the perspectives and viewpoints of the social context of that time. Consequently, this collective memory influences how events are recalled and passed down to future generations. It may
of the Deaf, 150, 292–304. Wilson, S. (2001a). Self-as-relationship in indigenous research. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 25(2), 91–92. Wilson, S. (2001b). What is an indigenous research methodology? Canadian Journal of Native Education, 25(2), 175–179. Wilson, S. (2008). Research is ceremony: Indigenous research methods. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Fernwood. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago
research—the data. Ntseane had based her rationale for the study on telling the story of these women from their own perspectives. She was therefore sympathetic to their request to have their names associated with their stories. She also felt conflicted in her obligation to participants in the face of her need to comply with her United States–based doctoral committee and the university IRB requirements for confidentiality. This dilemma threatened trust at two levels: that between researcher and
use devices that record and preserve their data, they have a data trail that can be reviewed by other researchers (LeCompte & Goetz, 1982). REFLECTION QUESTIONS 1. What strategies do ethnographers employ to enhance their research credibility? What strategies do you consider most critical to accepting an ethnographer’s findings and interpretations? 2. How do ethnographers’ understandings of validity and reliability compare with your previous understanding of these concepts? What’s the State of