Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century
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Racisms is the first comprehensive history of racism, from the Crusades to the twentieth century. Demonstrating that there is not one continuous tradition of racism, Francisco Bethencourt shows that racism preceded any theories of race and must be viewed within the prism and context of social hierarchies and local conditions. In this richly illustrated book, Bethencourt argues that in its various aspects, all racism has been triggered by political projects monopolizing specific economic and social resources.
Racisms focuses on the Western world, but opens comparative views on ethnic discrimination and segregation in Asia and Africa. Bethencourt looks at different forms of racism, and explores instances of enslavement, forced migration, and ethnic cleansing, while analyzing how practices of discrimination and segregation were defended.
This is a major interdisciplinary work that moves away from ideas of linear or innate racism and recasts our understanding of interethnic relations.
cases of European migration to tropical regions resulted in a poor survival rate. Yet the capacity for reproduction of the white population in Spanish America was surprisingly high: 3 million white people have been estimated for 1760. The Portuguese migrated in even greater numbers—probably 50,000 from 1415 to 1500, 280,000 from 1501 to 1580, 360,000 from 1581 to 1640, 150,000 from 1641 to 1700, 600,000 from 1701 to 1760, and 120,000 from 1761 to 1800, for a total over 1.5 million from a
participation of black people in the US armed forces in the First World War was still defined by segregation, only attenuated in the Second World War. It was the experience of black sacrifice that in 1948, brought about President Truman’s Executive Order 9981, which established equal treatment for all races in the army. It took a courageous and long struggle for civil rights, led by black movements, associations, and respected church figures such as Martin Luther King Jr., to challenge
China in Western Minds (New York: W. W. Norton, 1998), 41–61, particularly 43–44. Pimentel also complained about the “baseness” of Chinese table manners. 59. Arnoldus Montanus, Atlas Chinensis, Being a Second Part of a Relation of Remarkable Passages in Two Embassies from the East India Company of the United Provinces to the Vice-Roy Singlamong and General Taising Lipovi and to Konchi, Emperor of China and East Tartaria, trans. John Ogilvy (London: Thomas Johnson, 1671), 454. CHAPTER 9:
Portuguese and Local Societies in Asia,” in Rivalry and Conflict: European Traders and Asian Trading Networks in the 16th and 17th Centuries, ed. Ernst van Veen and Léonard Blussé (Leiden: CNWS, 2005), 108–30. 29. José Carlos Venâncio, A economia de Luanda e hinterland no século XVIII: Um estudo de sociologia histórica (Lisbon: Estampa, 1996), 46; José Carlos Venâncio, A dominação colonial: Protagonismos e heranças (Lisbon: Estampa, 2005), 32. 30. Jack D. Forbes, Africans and Native Americans:
Spanish influence and popes previously involved with the Roman Inquisition (Paul IV and Pius V) created a period of persecution of New Christians in Ancona in the mid-sixteenth century (twenty-five New Christians were excommunicated and executed in 1556), while in Rome a ghetto was created in 1556. Orders to expel all Jews from the Papal States, with the exception of Rome, Ancona, and Avignon, followed in 1569 and 1593. The creation of the House of the Catechumens in 1543 proved to be