Rules, Patterns and Words: Grammar and Lexis in English Language Teaching (Cambridge Language Teaching Library)

Rules, Patterns and Words: Grammar and Lexis in English Language Teaching (Cambridge Language Teaching Library)

Language: English

Pages: 246

ISBN: B003U6Z2IQ

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


Teachers need a clear description of what constitutes grammar and how it can best be taught in the English language classroom. This book illustrates a new way of describing the grammar of spoken and written English and demonstrates how lexical phrases, frames and patterns provide a link between grammar and vocabulary. These processes and techniques are contextualised within a task-based approach to teaching and learning. Numerous interactive tasks are provided to guide readers. Over 40 examples of teaching exercises are included to illustrate techniques which can be applied in the classroom immediately.

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know that these two words frequently go together in English – that we talk about strong tea and weak tea. Someone who knows the word sour and the word milk may not know that these two words go together, that we talk about milk going sour rather than milk getting old or going bitter. Along with collocations we have collocational restrictions. We talk about strong tea and weak tea, but if we are talking about cheese we use the words strong and mild. We do not describe cheese as weak, and we do not

messages they want to communicate become more and more complex. If they are to make their meaning clear, they need to build in more and more the grammar of orientation. And if they want to use language efficiently, they need to build up patterns and phrases which they can call to mind rapidly and spontaneously. If we take this view, then, instead of a process in which learners first learn how to make grammatical sentences and subsequently learn to put in the words they have learnt, we have a

messages they want to communicate become more and more complex. If they are to make their meaning clear, they need to build in more and more the grammar of orientation. And if they want to use language efficiently, they need to build up patterns and phrases which they can call to mind rapidly and spontaneously. If we take this view, then, instead of a process in which learners first learn how to make grammatical sentences and subsequently learn to put in the words they have learnt, we have a

previous texts to supplement the examples they can find in a particular text. This can work either from the meanings of verbs or from the patterns associated with them. We can ask them to look for verbs followed by a to-infinitive and to or we can ask them to look for verbs describing a mental state. • System building: We can encourage system building by highlighting the meaning of items such as about, meaning on the subject of, and asking students to predict which verbs are likely to trigger

explanation. If we are to harness the power of systematic description we must find appropriate pedagogic techniques to achieve this. We will now go on to look at an approach to teaching the verb phrase based on the five-stage model of language development outlined in Chapter 1. 5.4.1 Improvisation From a very early stage learners will improvise with verb forms to get their message across. They will, for example, use a base form of the verb with a past adverbial to encode past time: *I see her

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