Schizotypy and Schizophrenia: The View from Experimental Psychopathology

Schizotypy and Schizophrenia: The View from Experimental Psychopathology

Language: English

Pages: 444

ISBN: 1606238655

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This compelling book argues that all people with schizophrenia share a personality organization known as schizotypy. Presented is a novel framework for understanding schizophrenia through the study of individuals who may never develop the disorder, but who nonetheless harbor a liability for it. Mark F. Lenzenweger comprehensively reviews current knowledge about schizotypy while exploring broader questions of how to think about and conduct psychopathology research, making the book useful and relevant for both researchers and students. He demonstrates state-of-the-art strategies for combining clinical observations, psychometric and psychophysiological measures, neuroimaging, and genetic analyses, and for analyzing the results using advanced statistical techniques.

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(interestingly, a view that would be embraced by neuroscience nearly 50 years later; see Kosslyn et al., 2002). The correlational psychologist uses the powerful correlation coefficient to calculate the association between variation in some variable of interest (loosely, the independent variable, although the correlational research does not control the independent variable per se) with variation in another variable of interest (the dependent variable in the correlational setup). For example, one

represent the imperfect nature of selection (was our selection index prone to falsely identifying some people as schizotypes, despite their similar scores on the measure)? Was there a core schizotype, even while different schizotypes displayed different performance profiles? Could it be that, even in a carefully selected sample such as we had, there was etiologic heterogeneity, and was this reflected in different patterns of laboratory task performance across the sample of schizotypes? The

“composite deviance index.”1 The distribution of scores on this deviance index for the two subject groups can be seen in Figure 4.1. Inspection of the figure, which simultaneously plots two histograms (one of each subject group), reveals that although most schizotypes scored comparably to the normals on the deviance index, there was clearly a group of schizotypes out in the right tail of the distribution. These right-tail-­dwelling schizotypes were particularly interesting as (1) they were

clinical attention, it is likely that the phenomenological 122 SCHIZOTYPY VIEWED FROM THE LABORATORY picture that emerges in a clinical assessment will be tainted to some extent by state-­related disturbance (e.g., depression, suicidal ideation). Given these considerations, how many schizotypic individuals exist in the general population? How effectively can we find them? Will a schizotype answer the doorbell when the epidemiologist comes a callin’? Can we be confident in such

was hypothesized to represent a fundamental and etiologically important factor in the development of schizotypy, actually falling somewhat “between” the genetic defect hypokrisia and the other schizotypic signs and symptoms—­interpersonal aversiveness, cognitive slippage, and ambivalence. Later, Meehl deemphasized anhedonia (then termed hypohedonia; but see Meehl, 1964) as a fundamental etiological factor in the development of schizotypy and schizophrenia (see Meehl, 1987). In the 1990 revision,

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