Stress Biology of Yeasts and Fungi: Applications for Industrial Brewing and Fermentation
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This book describes cutting-edge science and technology of the characterization, breeding, and development of yeasts and fungi used worldwide in fermentation industries such as alcohol beverage brewing, bread making, and bioethanol production. The book also covers numerous topics and important areas the previous literature has missed, ranging widely from molecular mechanisms to biotechnological applications related to stress response/tolerance of yeasts and fungi. During fermentation processes, cells of yeast and fungus, mostly Saccharomyces and Aspergillus oryzae spp., respectively, are exposed to a variety of fermentation “stresses”. Such stresses lead to growth inhibition or cell death. Under severe stress conditions, their fermentation ability and enzyme productivity are rather limited. Therefore, in terms of industrial application, stress tolerance is the key characteristic for yeast and fungal cells. The first part of this book provides stress response/tolerance mechanisms of yeast used for the production of sake, beer, wine, bread, and bioethanol. The second part covers stress response/tolerance mechanisms of fungi during environmental changes and biological processes of industrial fermentation. Readers benefit nicely from the novel understandings and methodologies of these industrial microbes. The book is suitable for both academic scientists and graduate-level students specialized in applied microbiology and biochemistry and biotechnology and for industrial researchers and engineers who are involved in fermentation-based technologies.
The fundamental studies described in this book can be applied to the breeding of useful microbes (yeasts, fungi), the production of valuable compounds (ethanol, CO2, amino acids, organic acids, and enzymes) and the development of promising processes to solve environmental issues (bioethanol, biorefinery).
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:6347–6357 Chapter 12 Protein Kinase C of Filamentous Fungi and Its Roles in the Stresses Affecting Hyphal Morphogenesis and Conidiation Hiroyuki Horiuchi and Takuya Katayama Abstract Protein kinase C (PKC) is known to play pivotal roles in the various signal transduction pathways in mammalian cells. Its functions have been extensively explored in mammalian cells, whereas those of the PKC of filamentous fungi remain largely unknown, with the exception that PKC is
Production Lignocellulosic materials are among the most important potential sources for bioethanol production (Gray et al. 2006; Hahn-Hagerdal et al. 2007). Lignocellulosic plant residue contains up to 70 % carbohydrates (as cellulose and hemicellulose), so it is a prominent substrate for inexpensive bioethanol production (Zaldivar et al. 2001). However, because of the close associations of cellulose and hemicellulose with lignin in the plant cell wall, pretreatment is necessary to make
levels of acetate tolerance. Because S. cerevisiae is considered a Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) microorganism, recycled products including DDGS produced by a fermentation system using S. cerevisiae are valuable as forage. In addition, S. cerevisiae is known as a good model system to study acid stress and defense against it in eukaryotes (Piper 2011). We found that S. cerevisiae ATCC 38555 is acetate tolerant, with a fermentation profile indicating that it has a high level of acetate 102
BY4743+pRS426-ADH1 BY4743+pRS426 Glycerol 2.7 0.03 Ethylene glycol 89 Ethylene glycol 94.5 Ethanol 184 2.6 Ethanol 131 5.81 Acetic acid 15.7 0.05 2.5 3.09 Acetic acid 27.4 1.2 Fig. 1.6 Effect of glycolaldehyde on extracellular fermentation metabolic flux distribution. Extracellular fermentation metabolic flux distributions of strains are represented as moles of products per moles of consumed glucose; the thicknesses of the arrows represents the extent of flux. The results are expressed
Rhizopus oryzae lactate dehydrogenase gene. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 30(1):22–27. doi:10.1007/ s10295-002-0004-2 Stratford M, Anslow PA (1998) Evidence that sorbic acid does not inhibit yeast as a classic “weak acid preservative”. Lett Appl Microbiol 27(4):203–206 Stratford M, Nebe-von-Caron G, Steels H, Novodvorska M, Ueckert J, Archer DB (2013) Weakacid preservatives: pH and proton movements in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Int J Food Microbiol 161(3):164–171.