The Condition of the Working Class in England (Classics)
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This forceful polemic explores the staggering human cost of the Industrial Revolution in Victorian England. Engels paints an unforgettable picture of daily life in the new industrial towns, and for miners and agricultural workers in a savage indictment of the greed of the bourgeoisie. His later preface, written for the first English edition of 1892 and included here, brought the story up to date in the light of forty years' further reflection.
clear to every one from our previous exposition of the principles according to which wages are determined. The manufacturer can compete more readily, the demand for English goods increases, and, with it, the demand for labour. In consequence of this increased demand wages would actually rise somewhat, and the unemployed workers be re-employed; but for how long? The ‘surplus population’ of England, and especially of Ireland, is sufficient to supply English manufacture with the necessary
country was pauperized and more or less dependent upon the rates, from which it received relief when wages were low; it was found that this system by which the unemployed were maintained, the ill-paid and the parents of large families relieved, fathers of illegitimate children required to pay alimony, and poverty, in general, recognized as needing protection, – it was found that this system was ruining the nation, was A check upon industry, a reward for improvident marriage, a stimulus to
Mondes 211 rickets 132 Roberton (gynaecologist) 180 Roberts, W. P. 257, 258, 260, 261, 262, 281 Robson, George 285–285 Rochdale 55, 56, 83, 106, 107, 161, 197 Royal Commission on the Housing of the Poor: Report 37 Rural Rides (Cobbett) 13 sabotage 19 Saddleworth 182 Sadler, Michael 186, 187, 189 St Brides, London 287 St Giles (London) 71, 72, 79, 147 St Helens 167, 258 St Pancras Workhouse 220, 286 Salford 10, 85, 86, 99–99, 135, 152, 156, 166, 190 Sanitary Condition of the
mortality in those bad streets which were improved, decreased 25 per cent. He closes with the remark, very frank for an English bourgeois:9 When we find the rate of mortality four times as high in some streets as in others, and twice as high in whole classes of streets as in other classes, and further find that it is all but invariably high in those streets which are in bad condition, and almost invariably low in those whose condition is good, we cannot resist the conclusion that multitudes of
powerful association for keeping wages up, and their craft requires long training; but the coarse spinners who have to compete against self-actors (which are not as yet adapted for fine spinning), and whose association was broken down by the introduction of these machines, receive very low wages. A mule spinner told me that he does not earn more than fourteen shillings a week, and his statement agrees with that of Leach, that in various factories the coarse spinners earn less than sixteen