The Humanistic Tradition, Book 3: The European Renaissance , The Reformation, and Global Encounter

The Humanistic Tradition, Book 3: The European Renaissance , The Reformation, and Global Encounter

Gloria K. Fiero

Language: English

Pages: 180

ISBN: 0697340708

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

The explosion of creativity that marked the European Renaissance provoked an unprecedented age of exploration and of cross-cultural encounter. From the depths of the Black Plague to the heights of Shakespeare's sonnets, book three of The Humanistic Tradition provides an exciting portrait of this period. In a compelling counterpoint to her description of the Renaissance, Fiero devotes a section to the cultures that came into increasing contact with the burgeoning West - the kingdoms of West Africa and the societies of North, Central, and South America.

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body, must do what he can to procure a true free council. This no one can do so well as the temporal authorities, especially since they are fellow-Christians, fellow-priests, sharing one spirit and one power in all things, . . . Would it not be most unnatural, if a fire were to break out in a city, and every one were to keep still and let it burn on and on, whatever might be burnt, simply because they had not the mayor’s authority, or because the fire perchance broke out at the mayor’s house? Is

his day, Machaut was more widely known and acclaimed than Chaucer and Boccaccio. Like the Limbourg brothers, Machaut held commissions from the French aristocracy, including the Duke of Berry. Machaut penned hundreds of poems, including a verse drama interspersed with songs, but his most important musical achievement was his Messe de Notre Dame (Mass of Our Lady). Departing from the medieval tradition of treating the Mass as five separate compositions (based on Gregorian chant), he unified the

lyricism, as well as vivid poetic imagery—features that parallel the humanizing currents in fourteenth-century art and literature. “One who does not compose according to feelings,” wrote Machaut, “falsifies his work and his song.” See Music Listening Selections at end of chapter. 18 CHAPTER 15 BK3_001-115.indd 18 Adversity and Challenge: The Fourteenth-Century Transition Book3 04/12/2009 6:05 AM Cyan Magenta Yellow Black LOOKING BACK • The fourteenth century witnessed the transition

some scholars argue that this aspect of the genre was influenced by Christian representations of the Crucifixion. Another type of African sculpture, the nkisi, describes a type of power object produced throughout the Congo basin in Central Africa (Figure 18.12). Employed in rituals designed to channel spiritual energy, some nkisi were used to heal the sick, while others served functions ranging from sealing agreements to warding off evil spirits. On behalf of a client, a diviner or priest

take it from the aqueduct by placing the canoes beneath the bridges where those channels are, and on top there are men who fill the canoes and are paid for their work. At all the gateways to the city and at the places where these canoes are unloaded, which is where the greater part of the provisions enter the city, there are guards in huts who receive a [percentage] of all that enters. I have not yet discovered whether this goes to the chief or to the city, but I think to the chief, because in

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