The Modern World-System III: The Second Era of Great Expansion of the Capitalist World-Economy, 1730s-1840s
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explanations for British advantage, the first of which was “the system followed by England, for more than a century, of allowing into its internal market only the products of its own factories, and rejecting those of foreign producers by means of prohibitions or by customs duties which have the same effect.”201 The return to protectionism was clearly one of the immediate concerns of a large segment of those who made the revolution and/or came to power as a result of it. “There is no doubting the
“extreme” (that is, famine) situations. 6 There are many descriptions in Labrousse’s writings and elsewhere of this phenomenon. Perhaps the most lucid brief statement is in Labrousse (1945, iv–v). 7 This is, of course, the central empirical finding of Labrousse’s work. See in particular Labrousse (1933, II, 379, 399, 444). 8 The “real crisis of French agriculture, at the end of the reign of Louis XV, and occasionally throughout the reign of Louis XVI, [was] the crisis caused by a worsening of